CrashCourse – 004 – Building an Int

With PT8 development starting in the next few days, several parts of the project will get slowly released in different states of completion, the standard library source code being one of them. So it is the right time to describe a few parts of the standard library and how it evolved since its inception.

The numeric types are a good point to start, since they have a lot in common: understand one and you understand them all. As a standard library, one part of it may freely use other parts of it to accomplish some tasks. But let us suppose for a moment that all classes inside the library are independent and only serve to offer an API to clients of the library, without one referencing another one within the library. Then what is the minimal Int class?

namespace sys.core.lang;

class Int {

That’s it! If nobody expects Int to have a specific API, Z2 as a language does not impose any structure upon it. It is just a normal value class. But the combination of namespace plus name, the class sys.core.lang.Int is still special. It is a core class (not to be confused with sys.core, the two “core” terms have separate meanings; maybe we should fix this conflict of terms), meaning the CPU has a special understanding of it. Additionally, it is an arithmetic class. While all classes are value types, some, like Int are arithmetic implicitly, without them having an explicit API to make them behave like arithmetic types. Other third-party classes do need to have an API to conform to the arithmetic requirements. And this special treatment does not apply to other classes named Int from other namespaces.

As implicitly arithmetic, even though the Int class is empty, it still behaves as if it had several methods defined inside, like the ones commonly defined through operator overloading. All the commonly used operators in C like languages work on Int instances, like +, -, *, /, <>, ==, !=, <, , =>, ++, –, &, |, ^ and ~. They all behave as expected and you are not allowed to override them and change their meaning. Using these operators one can write complex expressions and with a few exceptions, expressions involving Ints could be copied over from C or Java into Z2.

Another thing that one does with numerical values is convert from one type to another, a task commonly done with casting. As a historical note, early versions of the Z2 design had casts, but it was found that they greatly overlapped with constructors and were eliminated. Today, Z2 has no casts and all conversions are handled though constructors. You do not cast a type to another, you construct a new instance of appropriate type, based on another instance. This is a mostly a theoretical and style based distinction, because the end result and the generated machine code are the same. As a normal class, Int has a default constructor Int{}. Conversion constructors have usually one parameter, the input value that needs to be converted. If we have a Float variable called floaty or a literal Float constant, -7.4f, we can “cast” them to Int with Int{floaty} and respectively Int{-7.4f}. And this works for all built-in numeric types, even with Bool values, like Int{true}.

As mentioned in a previous post, Z2 does not like to force you to write code that it can figure out itself or is just boiler plate code. The standard Int class could have had like 20 operators overloaded, all of them with all the parameter combinations, totaling hundreds of methods and additionally have all the conversion constructors. Instead, we choose to have this core functionality be available implicitly. Thus, the class is perfectly functional empty.

And things could be left as is. The standard library could have just a bunch of numerical classes with empty bodies, offering a few expected built-in operations. But Z2 chooses to add a bit of extra functionality to such classes. Not a huge amount, we don’t want these classes to become bloated, especially since third parties can reopen these classes and add any extra functionality they might need. Today I will show a little bit of a blast from the past, the Int class as it was a few months back. Today it is almost identical, but small changes and tweaks have been made. This simpler Int class will serve as a fine introduction on how to add value to such types and in the next posts I’ll detail how the evolution of the language has led to some changes to this class.

namespace sys.core.lang;

class Int {
	const Zero: Int = 0;
	const One: Int = 1;
	const Default: Int = Zero;

	const Min: Int = -2'147'483'648;
	const Max: Int = 2'147'483'647;

	const IsSigned = true;
	const IsInteger = true;

	const MaxDigitsLow = 9;
	const MaxDigitsHigh = 10;

	property Abs: Int {
		return this > 0 ? this : -this;

	property Sqr: Int {
		return this * this;

	property Sqrt: Int {
		return Int{Double{this}.Sqrt};

	property Floor: Int {
		return this;

	property Ceil: Int {
		return this;

	property Round: Int {
		return this;

	def GetMin(min: Int): Int; const {
		return this >= min ? min : this;

	def GetMax(max: Int): Int; const {
		return this <= max ? max : this;

	def Clamp(min: Int, max: Int): Int; const {
		if (this <= min)
			return min;
		else if (this >= max)
			return max;
			return this;

This is a rather bare bones Int class but it still offers a lot more functionality over an empty class and also serves to show our approach to library design: using this style, the difference between language features and library features is blurred. The absolute value of -7 can be obtained with -7.Abs and it looks a bit like a language feature, but the implementation is actually part of the library. Additionally, all the numeric types are extremely similar and share similar API, giving you the necessary feature parity in some situations, like when working with templates.

But let’s go slower. On lines 4-6, we have a few simple constants that do not seem that useful, giving you the 0, 1 and default values for the class. They are mostly here for feature parity with more complex numeric types, like multi-dimensional points.

On lines 8 and 9 we have two extremely important constant: Min and Max, giving us the minimum and maximum Int values. Adding these two constants to the class solves an old problem quite nicely. Where to stick these values? In C/C++, you need to include a header to access INT_MIN and INT_MAX. The recommended header changes depending on if you are using C or C++. These constants could be a #define, thus sharing the myriad of well documented problems of the pre-processor. If you are using C++ and doing things the C++ way, you need std::numeric_limits::min() and std::numeric_limits::max(). Or starting with C++ 11, besides min, there is also lowest. Why are there two? What is the difference between them? The answer is not self-evident and you need to google it to find any answer. This approach is better than using #defines, and Z2 could easily go this route, but it was decided that such a simple task should not be handled by templates. Does your type have a minimum value? If yes, just add a constant into it! You can use Int.Min to get the minimum value for Int and Foo.Max to get the maximum value for Foo if it has one. Or you can use existing instances, even literal constants, so the following samples are examples of perfectly legal expressions:

A + C * (C.Max / C.Max.Min);
A + C * (Int.Max / Int.Max.Min);
(true <= 6).Min <= (1 < 5).Max;

Please don’t write code like this!

On line 17 we have the Abs property defined, which returns the absolute value of the instance. On line 21 we find the very simple property that returns the square of the values. This is useful as a shorthand, when having to square some complex expression. Using Sqr, you don’t need to type it twice with a * between the two, minding side effects of the expression or having to use a temporary variable and multiplying it with itself. We find it useful and it is implemented easily inside Int, so why not have it? On line 25, we have the Sqrt property, which returns the square root of the value. This already shows interconnection of classes within the standard library: the easiest implementation of square roots on integer values is casting them to double, getting the square root and casting that result back to an integer. On lines 29, 33 and 37 we have properties that return the floor, ceiling and rounded values. For floating point values these make sense, but for integer values, they don’t really and by definition the floor of an integer is the value itself. They are included for feature parity again. As an example, you may have a template vector and run a summing lamda on it that adds together the floors of the values in the vector. This will run fine on a vector of Double as an example, but would fail to compile on a vector of Int. But because we added these feature parity APIs, the types are interchangeable and it is easier to write generic algorithms.

These methods are also logically grouped. We have one “block” doing one kind of tasks, followed by other blocks. The final block is the comparison one. Having two or more values, we often need to find the minimum and maximum of them or clamp one to a range. This is why most types in Z2, when applicable, have methods like GetMax, GetMin and Clamp. Or had, to be more precise. This is where we found that having these methods which are almost always implemented identically added to each class contradicts the principle of Z2 not making you write boiler plate code and this was changed. As explained earlier, this is how numerical types were a few months back.

Next time we’ll see how we fixed this and evolve the Int class closer to its current form.


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